Saturday, April 7, 2018

WHY ARE KIDS IMPATIENT, BORED, FRIENDLESS, AND ENTITLED?

Why Are Kids Impatient, Bored, Friendless, and Entitled?, school, learning, modern lifestyle, Victoria Prooday, occupational therapist, future, children, child, alarming, experience, teacher,getting worse, message, social skills, emotional skills, academic functioning, learning disabilities, diagnoses, brain, environment, teachable, intentions, remold, make them happy, delayed gratification, instant, obstacles, stress, play outside, technology, outdoor time, parents less available, classrooms, saying 'No', interaction, priority, digital toys, tablets, cell phones, addictions, re-trainable, learn to wait, socialization, patience, artificial world, endless fun, parenting duty, help with chores, entertain, entertainment, fun world, work world, nutrient, processing information, screens, virtual reality, nervous systems, video games, vulnerable, stimulation, lazy, good night's sleep, proper nutrition, watch TV, iPad, goals, successful, unattainable goals, games, breakfast, fun, parenting, smile, love notes, dance, board games, go for walks, snacking, monotonous work, quote, Jonathan Lewis, 

(CCO-Creative Commons)
Kids today are in a devastating emotional state! Most come to school emotionally unavailable for learning. There are many factors in our modern lifestyle that contribute to this.” ~V.P.
In her practice, my friend Victoria Prooday, OT is seeing something so widespread and alarming that I asked if I could share her thoughts. Due to the overwhelming interest and conversation on this topic, I am re-sharing her post.
I encourage every parent who cares about the future of his/her children to read it. I know that many would choose not to hear what she says in the article, but your children needs you to hear this message.
Victoria writes:
I am an occupational therapist with years of experience working with children, parents, and teachers. I completely agree with this teacher’s message that our children are getting worse and worse in many aspects.
I hear the same consistent message from every teacher I meet. Clearly, throughout my time as an Occupational Therapist, I have seen and continue to see a decline in children’s social, emotional, and academic functioning, as well as a sharp increase in learning disabilities and other diagnoses.
As we know, the brain is malleable. Through environment, we can make the brain “stronger” or make it “weaker”. I truly believe that, despite all our greatest intentions, we unfortunately remold our children’s brains in the wrong direction.
Jackie’s Note: here is a printable list of 30 more ways to help your kids
Here is why:

1. KIDS GET EVERYTHING THEY WANT WHEN THEY WANT IT

“I am Hungry!!” “In a sec I will stop at the drive thru” “I am Thirsty!” “Here is a vending machine.” “I am bored!” “Use my phone!”  The ability to delay gratification is one of the key factors for future success. We have the best intentions — to make our child happy — but unfortunately, we make them happy at the moment but miserable in the long term.  To be able to delay gratification means to be able to function under stress. Our children are gradually becoming less equipped to deal with even minor stressors, which eventually become huge obstacles to their success in life.
The inability to delay gratification is often seen in classrooms, malls, restaurants, and toy stores the moment the child hears “No” because parents have taught their child’s brain to get what it wants right away.

2. LIMITED SOCIAL INTERACTION

We are all busy, so we give our children digital gadgets and make them “busy” too. Kids used to play outside, where, in unstructured natural environments, they learned and practiced their social skills.  Unfortunately, technology replaced the outdoor time.  Also, technology made the parents less available to socially interact with their child. Obviously, our kids fall behind… the babysitting gadget is not equipped to help kids develop social skills. Most successful people have great social skills. This is the priority!
The brain is just like a muscle that is trainable and re-trainable. If you want your child to be able to bike, you teach him biking skills. If you want your child to be able to wait, you need to teach that child patience.  If you want your child to be able to socialize, you need to teach him social skills. The same applies to all the other skills. There is no difference!

3. ENDLESS FUN

We have created an artificial fun world for our children. There are no dull moments. The moment it becomes quiet, we run to entertain them again, because otherwise, we feel that we are not doing our parenting duty. We live in two separate worlds. They have their “fun“ world, and we have our “work” world. Why aren’t children helping us in the kitchen or with laundry? Why don’t they tidy up their toys? This is basic monotonous work that trains the brain to be workable and function under “boredom,” which is the same “muscle” that is required to be eventually teachable at school.  When they come to school and it is time for handwriting their answer is “I can’t. It is too hard. Too boring.” Why? Because the workable “muscle” is not getting trained through endless fun. It gets trained through work.

4. TECHNOLOGY

Using technology as a “Free babysitting service” is, in fact, not free at all. The payment is waiting for you just around the corner.  We pay with our kids’ nervous systems, with their attention, and with their ability for delayed gratification. Compared to virtual reality, everyday life is boring. When kids come to the classroom, they are exposed to human voices and adequate visual stimulation as opposed to being bombarded with the graphic explosions and special effects that they are used to seeing on the screens. After hours of virtual reality, processing information in a classroom becomes increasingly challenging for our kids because their brains are getting used to the high levels of stimulation that video games provide. The inability to process lower levels of stimulation leaves kids vulnerable to academic challenges. Technology also disconnects us emotionally from our children and our families. Parental emotional availability is the main nutrient for child’s brain. Unfortunately, we are gradually depriving our children of that nutrient.

5. KIDS RULE THE WORLD

“My son doesn’t like vegetables.” “She doesn’t like going to bed early.” “He doesn’t like to eat breakfast.” “She doesn’t like toys, but she is very good at her iPad” “He doesn’t want to get dressed on his own.” “She is too lazy to eat on her own.” This is what I hear from parents all the time. Since when do children dictate to us how to parent them? If we leave it all up to them, all they are going to do is eat macaroni and cheese and bagels with cream cheese, watch TV, play on their tablets, and never go to bed. What good are we doing them by giving them what they WANT when we know that it is not GOOD for them? Without proper nutrition and a good night’s sleep, our kids come to school irritable, anxious, and inattentive.  In addition, we send them the wrong message.  They learn they can do what they want and not do what they don’t want. The concept of “need to do” is absent. Unfortunately, in order to achieve our goals in our lives, we have to do what’s necessary, which may not always be what we want to do.  For example, if a child wants to be an A student, he needs to study hard. If he wants to be a successful soccer player, he needs to practice every day. Our children know very well what they want, but have a very hard time doing what is necessary to achieve that goal. This results in unattainable goals and leaves the kids disappointed.

TRAIN THEIR BRAIN

You can make a difference in your child’s life by training your child’s brain so that your child will successfully function on social, emotional, and academic levels. Here is how:
1. Don’t be afraid to set the limits. Kids need limits to grow happy and healthy!!
  • Make a schedule for meal times, sleep times, technology time
  • Think of what is GOOD for them- not what they WANT/DON’T WANT. They are going to thank you for that later on in life. Parenting is a hard job. You need to be creative to make them do what is good for them because, most of the time, that is the exact opposite of what they want.
  • Kids need breakfast and nutritious food. They need to spend time outdoor and go to bed at a consistent time in order to come to school available for learning the next day!
  • Convert things that they don’t like doing/trying into fun, emotionally stimulating games
2. Limit technology, and re-connect with your kids emotionally
  • Surprise them with flowers, share a smile, tickle them, put a love note in their backpack or under their pillow, surprise them by taking them out for lunch on a school day, dance together, crawl together, have pillow fights
  • Have family dinners, board game nights (see the list of my favorite board games), go biking, go to outdoor walks with a flashlight in the evening
3. Train delayed gratification
  • Make them wait!!! It is ok to have “I am bored“ time – this is the first step to creativity
  • Gradually increase the waiting time between “I want” and “I get”
  • Avoid technology use in cars and restaurants, and instead teach them waiting while talking and playing games
  • Limit constant snacking
4. Teach your child to do monotonous work from early years as it is the foundation for future “workability”
  • Folding laundry, tidying up toys, hanging clothes, unpacking groceries, setting the table, making lunch, unpacking their lunch box, making their bed
  • Be creative. Initially make it stimulating and fun so that their brain associates it with something positive.
5. Teach social skills
  • Teach them turn taking, sharing, losing/winning, compromising, complimenting others , using “please and thank you”
From my experience as an occupational therapist, the kids changes the moment parents change their perspective on parenting.  Help your kids succeed in life by training and strengthening their brain sooner rather than later!

http://deeprootsathome.com/kids-friendless-bored-impatient/

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

How to make your kid good at anything, according to a world expert on peak performance

Parents can model good practice habits, but they must eventually “delegate the responsibility of the training,” he says. This will make a difference when the child grows up and (probably) does not become a professional athlete or musician. “The self-confidence of mastery and attributing it to their own doing—that will put them in a good position when they start a professional career,” he adds.
(Scroll to the bottom for an example of how deliberate practice differs from normal practice.)
Cognitive scientists bristle at the notion that innate ability does not matter: there is no way that every kid who loves cello can become Yo Yo Ma, or every kid who loves soccer will become Mia Hamm.
Douglas Detterman, a psychology professor at Case Western University, cites a number of factors that researchers have linked to expert performance, including intelligence, motivation, and personality. “Ericsson denies ability differences and claims that all differences are due to instructional differences,” he says. “I find that to be blatantly ridiculous.”

Serena Williams of the U.S. chases down a forehand to Roberta Vinci of Italy during their women's singles semi-final match at the U.S. Open Championships Tennis tournament in New York, September 11, 2015. REUTERS/Lucas Jackson - RTSOE1
Can my kid can do that?(Reuters/Lucas Jackson)

Indeed, criticisms of Ericsson’s work come from all directions, perhaps because of his magical one-solution approach. After years of raging debate over nature versus nurture, most scientists agree that both play a role. “A major reason for the shortcomings of the deliberate practice theory is its extreme environmentalist perspective,” wrote Frederik Ullén in a paper that argues expertise stems from many factors, including genes. A 2016 meta-analysis of sports research suggests that deliberate practice accounts for only 18% of variance in performance among all athletes, and only 1% among elite-level performers.
Scott Barry Kaufman, scientific director of the Imagination Institute at the University of Pennsylvania, and a fan of Ericsson’s work, explained it this way in Scientific American:
“The development of high achievement involves a complex interaction of many personal and environmental variables that feed off each other in non-linear, mutually reinforcing, and nuanced ways, and that the most complete understanding of the development of elite performance can only be arrived through an integration of perspectives.”

Proof that practice makes perfect

In 1763, a seven-year-old kid named Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart embarked on a European tour. Crowds flocked to see the prodigy. He could play multiple musical instruments with ease. More impressively, he had “absolute” or perfect pitch, the ability to identify any note played on any instrument at any time. Such a talent is incredibly rare—it was believed that only one in every 10,000 people had it—and helped to explain the young boy’s extraordinary talent, Ericsson writes in Peak.
Today, compared with kids trained in Suzuki piano, a young Mozart would probably be considered pretty average, Ericsson argues. (The professor studied the Suzuki method for a chapter in Genius of the the Mind, which addresses what kids play now versus what Mozart played then.)
Parents can model good practice habits, but they must eventually “delegate the responsibility of the training,” he says. This will make a difference when the child grows up and (probably) does not become a professional athlete or musician. “The self-confidence of mastery and attributing it to their own doing—that will put them in a good position when they start a professional career,” he adds.
(Scroll to the bottom for an example of how deliberate practice differs from normal practice.)
Cognitive scientists bristle at the notion that innate ability does not matter: there is no way that every kid who loves cello can become Yo Yo Ma, or every kid who loves soccer will become Mia Hamm.
Douglas Detterman, a psychology professor at Case Western University, cites a number of factors that researchers have linked to expert performance, including intelligence, motivation, and personality. “Ericsson denies ability differences and claims that all differences are due to instructional differences,” he says. “I find that to be blatantly ridiculous.”

Serena Williams of the U.S. chases down a forehand to Roberta Vinci of Italy during their women's singles semi-final match at the U.S. Open Championships Tennis tournament in New York, September 11, 2015. REUTERS/Lucas Jackson - RTSOE1
Can my kid can do that?(Reuters/Lucas Jackson)

Indeed, criticisms of Ericsson’s work come from all directions, perhaps because of his magical one-solution approach. After years of raging debate over nature versus nurture, most scientists agree that both play a role. “A major reason for the shortcomings of the deliberate practice theory is its extreme environmentalist perspective,” wrote Frederik Ullén in a paper that argues expertise stems from many factors, including genes. A 2016 meta-analysis of sports research suggests that deliberate practice accounts for only 18% of variance in performance among all athletes, and only 1% among elite-level performers.
Scott Barry Kaufman, scientific director of the Imagination Institute at the University of Pennsylvania, and a fan of Ericsson’s work, explained it this way in Scientific American:
“The development of high achievement involves a complex interaction of many personal and environmental variables that feed off each other in non-linear, mutually reinforcing, and nuanced ways, and that the most complete understanding of the development of elite performance can only be arrived through an integration of perspectives.”

Proof that practice makes perfect

In 1763, a seven-year-old kid named Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart embarked on a European tour. Crowds flocked to see the prodigy. He could play multiple musical instruments with ease. More impressively, he had “absolute” or perfect pitch, the ability to identify any note played on any instrument at any time. Such a talent is incredibly rare—it was believed that only one in every 10,000 people had it—and helped to explain the young boy’s extraordinary talent, Ericsson writes in Peak.
Today, compared with kids trained in Suzuki piano, a young Mozart would probably be considered pretty average, Ericsson argues. (The professor studied the Suzuki method for a chapter in Genius of the the Mind, which addresses what kids play now versus what Mozart played then.)
More than 250 years after Mozart wowed the world, research shows that perfect pitch is more common than previously thought, especially among people who speak languages in which tone is important, like Mandarin and Vietnamese.
Perhaps even more surprisingly, it can be taught.
In an experiment at a music school in Tokyo, 24 children between the ages of two and six were taught to recognize chords (composed of major notes) played on a piano. The kids received four or five short training sessions per day, each just a few minutes, until they could name 14 targeted chords. Within a year and a half, all could do it.
Mozart had the making of someone engaged in deliberate practice: he started very early, played a lot, and had a teacher—his father—who was dedicated to improving his abilities. (His sister was also incredibly accomplished, but she was born a girl in 1763, which limited her opportunities.) By the time Mozart toured Europe, he had dedicated far more time to music than the year-and-a-half the Japanese children spent learning perfect pitch. According to Ericsson, Mozart and the Japanese kids had a lot in common: “They were all endowed with a brain so flexible and adaptable that it could, with the right sort of training, develop a capacity that seems quite magical to those of us who do not possess it.”

COHEN FROM THE U.S. PERFORMS DURING THE GALA EXHIBITION OF THE WORLD FIGURE SKATING CHAMPIONSHIPS IN DORTMUND.  Sasha Cohen from the U.S. performs during the gala exhibition of the World Figure Skating Championships in Dortmund, 28 March 2004. Cohen placed second in the women's free skating competition REUTERS/Ina Fassbender REUTERS - RTRUUDA
Can my kid do that? (Reuters/Ina Fassbender)

Ericsson rattles off other examples of how deliberate practice helps rewire the brain. There’s the famous study of London taxi drivers, who developed larger hippocampi after memorizing the city’s bewildering grid. Or Steve Faloon, a graduate student at Carnegie Mellon who could remember seven digits at a time before training and a staggering 82 after; the Polgar sisters and their extraordinary chess feats; and a Danish psychologist who wanted to sing like Whitney Houston but can hardly carry a tune—and ends up recording an successful album.
From all this, it seems that with focus, any child can be taught to be a tennis star or chess champion. The experience of trying to reach that level, too, could help them get into college and later, land a good job: Goldman Sachs famously recruits athletes for their discipline and single-minded focus. So why doesn’t every parent adopt this approach?
One reason is that a lot of people think Ericsson is wrong.

Enter the doubters

In 2014, an entire issue of the academic journal Intelligence was devoted to articles disputing Ericsson’s work, arguing that IQ and other factors like motivation, range of motion, and the varied timing that some creative talents develop matter just as much as practice.
In the journal, one group of researchers reanalyzed six studies involving chess and eight involving music to determine how much of the performance variance could be accounted for by deliberate practice. In both fields, less than half of the variance in performance was down to deliberate practice, the authors concluded.

Usain Bolt of Jamaica smiles as he looks back at his competition, whilst winning the 100-meter semi-final sprint, at the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bolt is regarded as the fastest human ever timed. He is the first person to hold both the 100-meter and 200-meter world records since fully automatic time became mandatory. REUTERS/Kai Pfaffenbach TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY - RTSYEQ5
Can my kid to that? (Reuters/Kai Pfaffenbach)

Case Western’s Detterman believes that it’s unfair to tell people they can accomplish anything. “People are limited by their abilities,” he says. “It is unfair to the less able to claim that with sufficient hard work they can accomplish what those more gifted achieve.” Others say that Ericsson’s work could lead people to waste a significant share of their lives trying to acquire expertise that will never come.
Zach Hambrick, a professor of psychology at Michigan State University, has found in numerous studies and meta analyses that deliberate practice plays a role in performance, but not by as much as Ericsson suggests. His research has shown that practice itself is heritable, and that deliberate practice cannot explain away all genetic differences(pdf). “What we find is that deliberate practice, however it is measured and operationalized in studies, accounts for a sizable amount of the variability across people, but it leaves even more of the difference or variance unexplained,” he says.
He believes that a better understanding of what limits peoples abilities will help them decide how to spend their time and resources more carefully. If working memory is crucial for sight-reading music, someone with a bad working memory can either deliberately target ways to improve it—or maybe just switch to soccer. “This will allow more people to become experts,” he argues.
Some researchers also point out methodological problems with Ericsson’s work, such as the fact that when he studies experts, he starts by selecting a group of experts. In other words, they are not random.
There are other issues, Detterman writes: “In most cases, the study of experts concentrates on areas of expertise where there is no uniform, universal instruction. These areas include music, chess, art, gambling, memory, and other domains in which not everyone is instructed in a rigorous and systematic way.”
Ericsson’s rebuttal stems on his very specific definition of expertise: “consistently superior performance on a specified set of representative tasks for a domain.” There aren’t any age conditions, so if a kid can read exceptionally well at six, but most kids can read at that level at eight, it doesn’t count as expertise. Ericsson also excludes height and body size, acknowledging that you need to be tall to be successful in basketball and small to succeed in gymnastics at the highest level.
He says it’s not that innate talent is unnecessary, only that there is no evidence that it exists for most fields. He concedes that IQ may play a role early on, but says it isn’t the factor that determines whether someone reaches the highest echelons of performance. His definition of deliberate practice is also very narrow, and his criticism of the research debunking his work is often that the practice they reflect is not deliberate practice in its pure form.

Nature versus nurture, over and over

For most parents, the nature-versus-nurture debate is academic. What matters most is how to help kids become their best selves. Parents spend a lot of time thinking about how to help with math or science, reading or soccer, but perhaps they should also devote attention to thinking about the science of practice.

Russia's Garry Kasparov (R) sits opposite his countryfellow Anatoly Karpov at the beginning of their action chess game at the Giant Chess Classics in Frankfurt, June 29. It's the first time since 1995 that the World Champions Kasparov and Karpov are playing against each other.

KP/AA - RTR11JNP
Can my kid do that? (Reuters/Kai Pfaffenbach)

As kids pick their passions, and hone their own practice routines, parents can borrow from Ericsson’s work to help their children learn to set and track goals, be aware of the quality of their coaching, and consider specific improvements to practice instead of just adding more hours on the court, in the pool, or with the flashcards. Less is more if practice is intentionally designed, which is not often the case.
Success at something often begets success at something else. Accomplished surgeons often cite some other passion they found as a child that they built upon: a love of karate as a kid, say, led to practicing it endlessly, which in turn led to success and boosted confidence that manifested itself in the motivation to conquer other fields.
Somewhere in this process, kids learn that passion and hard work create a virtuous cycle that is particularly fulfilling when it is self-directed. It is up to children to pick their passions and put in the work, but parents can set them up for success by making them experts in the art of practice.

An example of normal practice versus deliberate practice

Practice
  • Start with a general idea of what the kid wants to do (play tennis)
  • Find a tennis group or lessons, play with parents, siblings, friends
  • Practice until kid reaches an acceptable level
  • Get a coach
  • Play more
  • Continue improving
Deliberate practice
  • Start with a general idea of what the kid wants to do (play tennis)
  • Find a tennis group or lessons, play with parents, siblings, friends
  • Practice until kid reaches an acceptable level
  • Get a coach who can set specific targets and tailor practice to improve those areas (improve forehand, vary rallies)
  • Develop a way to measure improvement, so if forehands are a weakness, the coach delivers lots of those strokes, progressively makes them harder to return, and demands that the player places strokes in a specific spot. Progress is tracked constantly
  • Create positive channels for feedback so that modifications are continuous (like learning how not to reveal intentions to opponent)
  • Develop a mental representation of excellent performance: what to do in various game situations; how to respond to certain shots; when to take risks and try new things
  • Coach designs developmentally appropriate training sessions to achieve maximum effort and concentration. “It’s counter-productive for a parent or teacher to push them longer than they can,” Ericsson says. “That creates motivational problems and forces the child to do the best they can when they don’t have 100% concentration. That’s linked to developing bad habits”
  • Kid learns to self-assess and come up with own mental representations, so they feel in charge and able to exploit opportunities on the court
  • Kid develops own training sessions to elicit maximum effort and concentration, acknowledging physical and mental limits, and learns to use self-assessment to address weaknesses

5 PSLE Changes From 2021 You Should Be Aware Of!

Did you know that the PSLE is all set to undergo a revamp in 2021? Children who were in Primary 1 in 2016 will be the first to experience these PSLE changes. 

Did you know that the PSLE is all set to undergo a revamp in 2021? Children who were in Primary 1 in 2016 will be the first to experience these PSLE changes. 
According to the MOE, “The changes are part of a larger shift to better nurture well-rounded individuals.”
“We hope this will encourage more students to discover their strengths and interests, as well as strengthen their values, knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the future.”
Mums and dads, here is what you need to know about changes to the PSLE scoring system:

No T-score from 2021

Currently, a pupil’s PSLE aggregate is the sum of the T-scores of all the four subjects he took. The current T-score system reflects a student’s relative performance against his peers.
So a student may score well for all his subjects, but receive a lower T-score if his peers score better.
From 2021, scores will reflect students’ own level of achievement, instead of comparing them to their peers. The T-score will be replaced by wider scoring bands.

New scoring system

  • Each subject will be scored using 8 bands known as Achievement Levels (AL), with AL1 being the best score and AL8 being the lowest score. The ALs reflect the student’s level of achievement in the subject.
For example, those with marks >=90 will get AL1 for that subject. (See table below for new grading system)
psle changes
SOURCE: MOE
AL1: 90 and above
AL2: 85-89
AL3: 80-84
AL4: 75-79
AL5: 65-74
AL6: 45-64
AL7: 20-44
AL8: Below 20
  • The student’s total PSLE Score will be the sum of the four subject scores. For example, a student who scores AL1 in all 4 subjects will get a PSLE score of 4.
psle changes
An example of the new scoring system SOURCE: MOE
So basically, the lower the score, the better!
  • The PSLE Score will range from 4 (best) to 32. There are 29 possible PSLE Scores. This new grading system is meant to reduce excessively fine differentiation of students at a young age.
The MOE says, “We want our children to focus on their own learning instead of trying to outdo others. As long as they meet the learning objectives of the curriculum, they will score the corresponding achievement level.”

Choice order of schools will matter during secondary school posting

This is what the secondary one (S1) posting exercise will look like in 2021:
  • Posting will continue to be based on academic merit using the PSLE Score.
  • The child will submit a list of 6 schools in order of preference. If two students with the same score are being considered for the last place in a school, the following tie-breakers will be used:
1.Citizenship
Singapore Citizens have highest priority, then Singapore Permanent Residents, then International Students.
2. Choice order of schools (NEW – From 2021)
In case of a tie, priority will be given to the student who indicates a certain school as a higher choice.
For example, if 2 Singaporean students have the same PSLE score and have chosen the same school, the one who has put it down as their first choice will get more priority than the one who listed it as a second choice.
3. Computerised balloting
In case of 2 pupils with the same PSLE score and citizenship status, trying for a place in a school which they have both listed in the same choice order, computerised balloting will be used as a tie-breaker.

Changes to streaming system for Express, Normal (Academic) and Normal (Technical) streams

Students will continue to be assigned to Express, Normal (Academic) and Normal (Technical) courses.
From 2021, to get into the Express stream, pupils need to get a PSLE score of 22 or less. For the Normal (Academic) stream, the child should score 25 or less. For the Normal (Technical) stream, a score of 30 or less is required.
psle changes
SOURCE: MOE

Child may have to re-take PSLE if he does badly

Pupils need to score at least AL7 for English and Maths to join the Normal (Technical) stream.
Scores of 31 and 32, where a pupil scores AL8 for English and/or Maths would mean that he has to re-take the PSLE .
He can also choose to join the NorthLight and Assumption Pathway specialised schools.

https://sg.theasianparent.com/psle-changes/